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How Can Finance Redefine its Purpose and Play a Key Role in Sustainability?


In our first event this year, we hosted Rachel Williams, a distinguished DPhil student at the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment at the University of Oxford. Beyond Rachel’s academic research into transition finance in the oil and gas sector, she also currently is part of the Corporate and Investment Bank Strategy team at JPMorgan Chase & Co., where she gets to work on real-world projects relating to climate finance. During the lecture, Rachel introduced us to key concepts in sustainable finance and stressed the immediate need for financial systems to align to sustainable outcomes.


This article discusses Rachel's take on financial institutions' responsibility in climate change mitigation and explores different vectors of sustainability like climate technology, transition finance, and shareholder activism.


Understanding the Critical Role of Sustainable Finance


At its core, sustainable finance is about getting our financial systems to align with sustainability outcomes. This alignment is not only a trend, but an essential shift, acknowledging that our practices affect the world's ecological balance and social equity. By incorporating these principles, we lead global finance toward more sustainable horizons to ensure that it contributes to the protection of resources for future generations.


Rachel emphasized the importance of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) factors in current financial considerations as a vehicle for this change. "In essence, when we talk about ESG, we are talking about a set of different criteria that are outside, beyond the traditional metrics that we are using in financial valuation". ESG factors enable investors to shift their focus to include environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and ethical governance as key considerations.


This shift is urgent. Discussing the financial market's response to climate change, Rachel reflected, "This is the biggest market failure we have ever seen." Indeed, the traditional market has failed in addressing monumental negative externalities associated with pollution and emissions. "The real impacts we're going to see of climate are actually going to impact generations beyond us," Rachel noted. This reality highlights the need for sustainable finance to mitigate these failures, urging immediate and collective action.


The Role of Financial Institutions in Climate Change Mitigation


While no one underestimates the considerable responsibility of financial institutions in the fight against climate change, many overlook their critical influence in this fight. "Financial institutions have a dual role in this dialogue," Rachel stated, pointing out the sector's backward and forward-looking roles. The backward-looking aspect acknowledges the sector's historical financing of carbon-intensive activities, while the forward-looking perspective highlights the imperative to manage climate-related risks and seize upon the opportunities that a transition to sustainability presents.


The journey toward sustainable finance necessitates a fundamental realignment of financial goals, moving beyond the traditional practices. To explain this shift, Rachel referred to the debate between "shareholder theory" and "stakeholder theory," which expands corporate responsibility from solely shareholders to society as a whole. Within this context, Rachel highlighted the high volume of voluntary climate commitments in recent years and the increased integration of climate considerations into core financial strategies and decision-making processes. Rachel cautioned, however, that these commitments must be followed by concrete actions to avoid greenwashing. "Targets are ultimately meaningless unless those setting them take action," she asserted, highlighting the need for transparency, third-party evaluations, and genuine dedication to environmental and social objectives.


To this end, many financial institutions have begun adopting new strategies to incorporate transition goals. Rachel shares insights on emerging strategies, such as dedicated climate risk teams tasked with identifying and mitigating environmental risks. These specialized groups play an important role in addressing concerns like stranded assets (Stranded assets are investments, often in high-emission industries like fossil fuels, that lose value due to environmental regulations combating climate change.) By actively engaging in risk assessment and strategic planning, financial institutions are not only safeguarding their investments, but also contributing to a broader framework of environmental resilience.


Climate Technology, Transition Finance, and Shareholder Activism


Climate technology is another important vector in the fight against climate change. Yet, it faces a significant challenge: the funding gap. This gap represents a critical stage in the investment cycle where promising technologies often perish due to insufficient financial support. However, financial institutions have the power to impact the development and deployment of climate technologies. Rachel outlined, " There is a huge investment gap required... McKinsey says it is 6.5 trillion USD on average annually by 2050 to reach net zero." Financial powerhouses can facilitate this necessary capital flow and future-proof their operations in an economy undergoing a monumental shift.


Transition finance is another vehicle for incumbent businesses to pivot their operations towards sustainability. Instruments like green bonds and sustainability-linked bonds have been offering companies substantial resources tied to sustainable outcomes. "These are instruments where you give a company a certain amount of money, and you tie the rate that they are paying to their ability to achieve certain sustainability-type goals," Rachel explained. Such instruments are not just funding mechanisms; they are commitments to sustainability, holding companies accountable while providing the financial backing necessary for environmentally conscious shifts.


Beyond the financial instruments, shareholder activism has emerged as another force in leading corporate sustainability initiatives. Here, investors use their equity stakes to pressure companies into adopting environmentally friendly practices. "You are seeing a lot of this in recent years where shareholders come in and demand changes at the company level," Rachel recounted, referencing successful interventions with giants like Exxon. This activism extends to influencing corporate governance and policy, reflecting a more hands-on approach to investment that prioritizes long-term sustainability over short-term profits.


In conclusion, the paradigm shift towards sustainable finance is an urgent necessity, redefining traditional investment priorities to safeguard our planet's future. Financial institutions emerge as pivotal players in this transformative journey, harnessing ESG factors, innovative climate technology, transition finance, and shareholder activism (amongst other tools) to drive systemic change. However, this shift requires more than passive commitment; it demands active, transparent strategies and tangible actions. By realigning financial practices with sustainability goals, we can bridge the crucial funding gaps, combat climate challenges, and foster a resilient world for future generations.


Yunus Isik, VP (Academics), Chief Editor

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